adjective: a word that modifies, or describes, a noun or a pronoun
adverb: a word that modifies, or describes, a verb, adjective, or adverb
antecedent: the word or phrase to which a pronoun refers
antonym: a word that is the opposite in meaning to a particular word
audience: the intended readers of a written work
bias: a personal tendency to judge a person, people, or ideas favorably or negatively
clarity: freedom from confusion and extraneous information
coherence: logical connection and adherence of ideas
colloquial language: conversational or informal language
concise: free from elaboration and unnecessary detail
context clues: the words or ideas that surround an unfamiliar word and provide clues to its
meaning; clues may be in the form of examples, definitions, restatements, or explanations
conventions: established practices, methods, and rules
credibility: believability, trustworthiness
deductive reasoning: drawing a specific conclusion from a general premise
demonstrative pronoun: a pronoun used to indicate a particular person or thing
explicit: clearly or directly stated
extraneous: not essential or pertinent
fallacy: a false or mistaken idea
figurative language: language that has a meaning that is not literal or exact
fluent: smooth and flowing
focus: the point of concentration or emphasis
graphic representation: a table, chart, graph, or other non-text-based form of representing
information
implications: ideas expressed indirectly
implicit: suggested without being directly stated
infer: to derive a conclusion by reasoning from evidence
intent: a clearly formulated aim
main idea: the central idea on which a paragraph or selection is based
modifier: a word that describes another word in the sentence (i.e., adjective, adverb)
noun: a word that names a person, place, thing, or idea
objective: dealing with facts without distortion by personal feelings or interpretations
occasion: the circumstance for which an action is taken
organized: structured as a coherent, unified whole
paragraphing: dividing writing into paragraphs
phrase: two or more words forming a distinct part of a sentence
point of view: a technical term in writing that refers to the person (i.e., first, second, third) in
which a piece of writing is presented; or the opinion, viewpoint, or stand taken by a writer
precise: defined exactly
preposition: a word that shows the relationship between a noun or pronoun and another word in
the sentence (e.g., in, over, with, before, of)
pronoun: a word that takes the place of a noun (e.g., I, her, theirs, everyone)
pronoun-antecedent agreement: a correct match between the number (e.g., singular, plural) and
gender of a pronoun and the antecedent to which it refers
purpose: a reason or goal
qualifying language: language, including adjectives and adverbs, used to explain or describe other
words in the sentence (e.g., "They, the boys and girls, were excited about their vacation."; "The
speaker was quite adamant about her point.")
redundancy: needless repetition or excessive use of words in an explanation or description
relative pronoun: a pronoun that introduces a clause
relevant: applicable to the matter at hand
run-on sentence: two or more sentences written and punctuated as one sentence
sentence fragment: an incomplete sentence punctuated as a complete sentence
structural analysis: the identification of prefixes, suffixes, and bases to help with word
identification
subject-verb agreement: a correct match between the number (e.g., singular, plural) of the subject
and verb in a sentence
supporting information: details, anecdotes, and other information provided to support a main idea
synonym: a word with the same meaning as or similar meaning to a particular word
syntax: the way in which words are arranged to form meaningful phrases, clauses, and sentences
theme: a subject or topic of discussion
thesis: a point set forth and defended in writing
transitions: words or phrases that serve to link ideas in a clear order
valid: both relevant and meaningful
verb: a word that expresses action or a state of being or becoming
verb tense: the form a verb takes to show time (e.g., past, present, future)
voice: individual distinction of form or expression
Mathematics
angle: a geometric figure formed by two distinct rays that have a common endpoint
area: space within a set of boundaries on a flat surface (measured in square units)
coordinate: the label of a point on a number line or on a coordinate grid
coordinate grid: a network of evenly spaced horizontal and vertical lines used to locate points in a
Cartesian coordinate system
decimal: a number that uses place value, contains a decimal point, and represents a part of a whole
diameter: the distance across a circle through the circle's center (the diameter is twice the radius)
equation: a statement of balance or equality
equivalent: to be equal in value or quantity
equilateral triangle: a triangle in which all three sides are equal in length
extraneous: not essential or pertinent
flip transformation: a geometric transformation in which the figure is turned over, producing a
reflection image
fraction: a number used to represent a part of a whole or a part of a group; a fraction represents the
division of one whole number by another and can be used to show a ratio between numbers
geometric transformation: the changing of a shape in a variety of ways that may or may not
change the size
hypotenuse: the side of a right triangle opposite the right angle
inductive reasoning: drawing a general conclusion from a particular fact or group of facts
integers: the whole numbers, their opposites, and zero
isosceles triangle: a triangle with two sides equal in length
line: a one-dimensional figure that extends infinitely in two directions
linear equation: an equation containing algebraic expressions with at least one variable and with no exponents greater than one, such as 6x + 4 = 166x plus 4 equals 16
mathematical expression: a phrase using numbers, variables, and operations symbols, such as 8, 15x, or 4n − 24n minus 2
mathematical operation: addition, subtraction, multiplication, or division
mean: in statistics, the average of a group of numbers; the mean is found by adding all the
numbers in the group and then dividing that sum by the number of numbers in the group
median: in statistics, the middle value of a set of numbers; half the numbers fall below the median
and half fall above when the numbers are listed in order from least to greatest or from greatest to
least—when there is an odd number of numbers in a set, the median is the number in the middle;
when there is an even number, the median is the average of the two middle numbers
mode: in statistics, the most frequently appearing value in a set of data
parallelogram: a plane figure with four sides, having the opposite sides parallel and equal
percent: "per hundred," a number representing a part out of 100 (34% means 34 out of 100)
perimeter: the measure of a figure's outer boundary
plane: a flat surface that extends infinitely in all directions
point: in geometry, an element that has a definite position, but no size or shape
polygon: a plane figure bounded by straight lines
prism: a solid figure with parallel polygonal ends, equal in size and shape, whose sides are
parallelograms
proportion: a pair of equal or equivalent ratios
quadrilateral: a plane figure with four sides
radius: the distance from the center of a circle to a point on the edge of the circle (the radius is
one-half the diameter)
range: the difference between the greatest and the smallest numbers in a set of numbers
ratio: a pair of numbers that describes a rate or comparison
rectangle: a four-sided plane figure with four right angles
right triangle: a triangle that has one angle of 90 degrees (right angle)
rhombus: an equilateral parallelogram, often referring to one without right angles
slide transformation: a geometric transformation in which the figure is moved to a different
location while maintaining the same orientation, size, and shape
square: a plane figure with four equal sides and four right angles
symmetry: similarity of form on either side of a dividing line
trapezoid: a plane figure with four sides, two of which are parallel to one another
triangle: a plane figure with three sides and three angles
turn transformation: a geometric transformation in which the figure is rotated without changing
its size or shape
vertex: the point at which two sides of an angle intersect
volume: measure of capacity (measured in cubic units)